Saturday, October 1, 2016

Bibliography on Post Keynesian Economics (Updated)

The updated bibliography below provides a list of the most important books and articles on various topics within Post Keynesian economics.

It is divided into the following sections (and there are now links to each section):
(1) Introductory Studies
(2) Advanced Overviews and Specialised Studies
(3) History of Post Keynesian Economics
(4) Methodology
(5) Uncertainty
(6) Endogenous Money
(7) Fiscal Policy
(8) Inflation
(9) Price Theory
(10) Trade Theory
(11) Cambridge Capital Controversies
(12) On the Work of George L. S. Shackle
(13) On the Work of Hyman Minsky
(14) Alfred Mitchell Innes and the Credit Theory of Money.
This is a work in progress. I am not claiming it is exhaustive by any means. There are plenty of additional categories that could be included.

Also note the following important academic journals for technical and professional Post Keynesian economics literature:
(1) Journal of Post Keynesian Economics
(2) Review of Keynesian Economics (with the Elgar online page here)
(3) Cambridge Journal of Economics
(4) Real World Economics Review
(5) Review of Radical Political Economics
Also see the Post Keynesian Economics Study Group:
Post Keynesian Economics Study Group (PKSG)
There is also a comprehensive Post Keynesian Economics Study Group Reading list here.

In my bibliography below, sections (1) and (2) are in chronological order for the moment. All other sections are in alphabetical order.

Suggestions are welcome.

Post Keynesian Economics Bibliography
(1) Introductory Studies
This items in this section are in chronological order.
Davidson, Paul. 2009. The Keynes Solution: The Path to Global Economic Prosperity (1st edn). Palgrave Macmillan, New York and Basingstoke.

Lavoie, Marc. 2009. Introduction to Post-Keynesian Economics (2nd rev. edn.). Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.

Skidelsky, R. J. A. 2010. Keynes: The Return of the Master (rev. and updated edn.). Penguin, London.

Hayes, Mark. 2010. “The Post Keynesian (Policy) Difference,”
http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/mgh37/Hayes191010.pdf

Skidelsky, Robert. 2011. “The Relevance of Keynes,” January 17
http://www.skidelskyr.com/site/article/the-relevance-of-keynes/

Skidelsky, Robert. 2011. “The Relevance of Keynes,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 35.1: 1–13.

King, J. E. 2012. The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
This is the second and updated edition of this work (1st edn. King 2003) that gives excellent short essays and overviews of all major subjects in Post Keynesian economics. This is a splendid first port of call for any research, especially for the beginner.

Wray, L. Randall. 2012. Modern Money Theory: A Primer on Macroeconomics for Sovereign Monetary Systems. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

King, John E. 2015. Advanced Introduction to Post Keynesian Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

(2) Advanced Overviews and Specialised Studies
This items in this section are in chronological order

Keynes, J. M. 1936. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. Macmillan, London.

Keynes, J. M. 1937. “The General Theory of Employment,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 51 (February): 209–222.

Tarshis, Lorie. 1947. The Elements of Economics: An Introduction to the Theory of Price and Employment. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Robinson, J. and J. Eatwell. 1973. An Introduction to Modern Economics. McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead.

Galbraith, John Kenneth. 1978. “On Post Keynesian Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 1.1: 8–11.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1985. Economics Without Equilibrium. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Pheby, J. (ed.), 1989. New Directions in Post-Keynesian Economics. Elgar, Aldershot.

Targetti, F. and A. P. Thirlwall (eds), 1989. The Essential Kaldor. Duckworth, London.

Eichner, Alfred S. 1991. The Macrodynamics of Advanced Market Economies (rev. edn), M. E. Sharpe, Armonk.

Arestis, Philip. 1992. The Post-Keynesian Approach to Economics: An Alternative Analysis of Economic Theory and Policy. Edward Elgar Publishing, Aldershot, Hants, England.

Arestis, Philip. 1994. Post-Keynesian Approach to Economics: Alternative Analysis of Economic Theory and Policy (new edn.), Edward Elgar Publishing.

Lavoie, Marc. 1992. Foundations of Post-Keynesian Economic Analysis. Edward Elgar Publishing, Aldershot, UK.

Davidson, P. (ed.). 1993. Can the Free Market Pick Winners?: What Determines Investment. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Lavoie, Marc. 1994. Foundations of Post-Keynesian Economic Analysis (new edn), Edward Elgar Publishing.

Davidson, Paul. 1994. Post Keynesian Macroeconomic Theory: Foundation for Successful Economic Policies for the Twenty-First Century. Edward Elgar Publishing, Aldershot.

Palley, Thomas I. 1996. Post Keynesian Economics: Debt, Distribution, and the Macro Economy. St. Martin’s Press, New York.

Holt, R. P. F. 2001. A New Guide to Post-Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London and New York.

Keen, S. 2001. Debunking Economics: The Naked Emperor of the Social Sciences. Zed Books, New York and London.

Davidson, P. 2002. Financial Markets, Money, and the Real World. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

King (ed.), J. E. 2003. The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK and Northhampton, MA.

Gnos, C. and L.-P. Rochon (eds). 2005. Post-Keynesian Principles of Economic Policy., Edward Elgar, Norhthampton, MA.

Hayes, Mark. 2006. The Economics of Keynes: A New Guide to The General Theory. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Pasinetti, Luigi L. 2007. Keynes and the Cambridge Keynesians: A ‘Revolution in Economics’ to be Accomplished. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Holt, R. P. F. and S. Pressman (eds). 2007. Empirical Post Keynesian Economics: Looking at the Real World. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y. and London.

Tily, Geoff. 2007. Keynes Betrayed: Keynes’s General Theory, The Rate of Interest and Keynesian Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Godley, Wynne and Marc Lavoie. 2007. Monetary Economics: An Integrated Approach to Credit, Money, Income, Production and Wealth. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, N.Y.

Minsky, H. P. 2008 [1975]. John Maynard Keynes. McGraw-Hill, New York and London.

Mitchell, William and Joan Muysken. 2008. Full Employment Abandoned: Shifting Sands and Policy Failures. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Davidson, Paul. 2009. John Maynard Keynes (rev. edn.). Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Hein, Eckhard and Engelbert Stockhammer (eds.). 2011. A Modern Guide to Keynesian Macroeconomics and Economic Policies. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
A recent collection of essays on many different subjects.

Keen, Steve. 2011. Debunking Economics: The Naked Emperor Dethroned? (rev. and expanded edn.). Zed Books, London and New York.
This is the revised and updated version of Keen’s earlier work (Keen 2001).

Davidson, Paul. 2011. Post Keynesian Macroeconomic Theory: Foundation for Successful Economic Policies for the Twenty-First Century (2nd edn). Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham.

Harcourt, G. C. and Peter Kriesler (eds.). 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economics. Volume 1: Theory and Origins. Oxford University Press, New York.

Harcourt, G. C. and Peter Kriesler (eds.). 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economics. Volume 2: Critiques and Methodology. Oxford University Press, New York.
A two volume collection of essays and advanced overviews of many different issues in Post Keynesian economics.

Lee, Frederic S. and Marc Lavoie (eds.). 2013. In Defense of post-Keynesian and Heterodox Economics: Responses to their Critics. Routledge, London.

Jespersen, Jesper and Mogens Ove Madsen (eds.). 2013. Teaching Post Keynesian Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
A collection of papers by leading Post Keynesian economists.

Lavoie, Marc. 2014. Post-Keynesian Economics: New Foundations. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
This is the newly updated and expanded version of Lavoie’s earlier work (Lavoie 1992). It runs to 680 pages, and is possibly the best and most authoritative work available.

Davidson, Paul. 2015. Post Keynesian Theory and Policy: A Realistic Analysis of the Market Oriented Capitalist Economy. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK.

Mitchell, Bill and L. Randall Wray. 2016. Modern Monetary Theory and Practice: An Introductory Text. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
See also here.

Halevi, Joseph, Harcourt, G. C., Kriesler, Peter and John Nevile. 2016. Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under. Theory and Policy in an Historical Context. Volume I: Essays on Keynes, Harrod and Kalecki. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.

Halevi, Joseph, Harcourt, G. C., Kriesler, Peter and John Nevile. 2016. Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under. Volume II: Essays on Policy and Applied Economics. Theory and Policy in an Historical Context. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.

Halevi, Joseph, Harcourt, G. C., Kriesler, Peter and John Nevile. 2016. Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under. Volume III: Essays on Ethics, Social Justice and Economics. Theory and Policy in an Historical Context. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.

Halevi, Joseph, Harcourt, G. C., Kriesler, Peter and John Nevile. 2016. Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under. Volume IV: Essays on Theory. Theory and Policy in an Historical Context. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.

Wray, L. Randall. 2016. Why Minsky Matters: An Introduction to the Work of a Maverick Economist. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

(3) History of Post Keynesian Economics
Ambrosi, Gerhard Michael. 2003. Keynes, Pigou and Cambridge Keynesians: Authenticity and Analytical Perspective in the Keynes-Classics Debate. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Arestis, P. 1996. “Post-Keynesian Economics: Towards Coherence,” Cambridge journal of Economics 20.1: 111–135.

Arestis, Philip, Dunn, Stephen P. and Malcolm Sawyer. 1999. “Post Keynesian Economics and its Critics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 21.4: 527–549.

Davidson, Paul. 2003–2004. “Setting the Record Straight on ‘A History of Post Keynesian Economics,’” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 26.2 245–272.

Davidson, Paul. 2005. “Galbraith and the Post Keynesians,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 28.1: 103–113.

Davidson, Paul. 2005. “Responses to Lavoie, King, and Dow on what Post Keynesianism is and who is a Post Keynesian,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27.3: 393–408.

Davidson, Paul. 2013. “Keynesian Foundations of Post-Keynesian Economics,” in G. C. Harcourt and Peter Kriesler (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economics. Volume 1: Theory and Origins. Oxford University Press, New York. 122–137.

Dunn, S. P. 2000. “Wither Post Keynesianism?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.3: 343–364.

Earl, P. E. and Stephen F. Frowen (eds). 2000. Economics as an Art of Thought: Essays in Memory of G.L.S. Shackle. Routledge, London.

Fontana, Giuseppe. 2005. “‘A History of Post Keynesian Economics since 1936’: Some Hard (and not so Hard) Questions for the Future,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27.3: 409–421.

Hamouda, O. F. and Geoffrey Colin Harcourt. 1988. “Post-Keynesianism: From Criticism to Coherence?,” Bulletin of Economic Research 40.1: 1–33.

Hamouda, O. F. and Geoffrey Colin Harcourt. 2003 [1988]. “Post-Keynesianism: From Criticism to Coherence?,” in Claudio Sardoni (ed.), On Political Economists and Modern Political Economy: Selected Essays of G. C. Harcourt. Routledge, London. 209–232.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 1979. Joan Robinson: Portrait of a Lady. University of Adelaide Economics Department, Adelaide.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 1993. Post-Keynesian Essays in Biography: Portraits of Twentieth-Century Political Economists. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 2001. “Joan Robinson and her Circle,” History of Economic Ideas 9: 59–71.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 2001. “Post-Keynesian Thought,” in G. C. Harcourt, 50 Years a Keynesian and Other Essays. Palgrave, London. 263–285.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 2003. “Cambridge Economic Tradition,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 44–51.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 2012. “Cambridge Economic Tradition,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 61–68.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 2006. The Structure of Post-Keynesian Economics: The Core Contributions of the Pioneers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin and Prue Kerr. 2009. Joan Robinson. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY.

Hayes, M. G. 2010. “The Fault Line between Keynes and the Cambridge Keynesians: A Review Essay,” Review of Political Economy 22:1: 151–160.

King, J. E. 1994. Conversations with Post Keynesians. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

King, J. E. 1997. “Notes on the History of Post Keynesian Economics in Australia,” in P. Arestis, G. Palma and M. C. Sawyer (eds.), Capital Controversy, Post Keynesian Economics and the History of Economic Theory: Essays in Honour of Geoff Harcourt (vol. 1). Routledge, London and New York. 298–309.

King, J. E. 2002. A History of Post Keynesian Economics since 1936. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA.

King, J. E. 2005. “Unwarping the Record: A Reply to Paul Davidson,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27.3: 377–384.

King, J. E. 2009. Nicholas Kaldor. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke and New York.

King, J. E. 2012. “Post Keynesians and Others,” Review of Political Economy 24.2: 305–319.

Kregel, Jan. 2013. “A Personal View of the Origins of Post-Keynesian Ideas in the History of Economics,” in G. C. Harcourt and Peter Kriesler (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economics. Volume 1: Theory and Origins. Oxford University Press, New York. 45–50.

Lavoie, Marc. 2005. “Changing Definitions: A Comment on Davidson’s Critique of King’s History of Post Keynesianism,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27.3: 371–376.

Lavoie, Marc. 2010. “Should Sraffian economics be dropped out of the Post-Keynesian School?,” Paper prepared for the Conference at the University of Roma Tre, 2–4 December.
http://host.uniroma3.it/eventi/sraffaconference2010/abstracts/pp_lavoie.pdf

Lavoie, Marc. 2011. “History and Methods of Post-Keynesian Economics,” in Eckhard Hein and Engelbert Stockhammer (eds.), A Modern Guide to Keynesian Macroeconomics and Economic Policies. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 1–33.

Lavoie, Marc. 2014. “To which of the Five Streams of Post-Keynesianism does John King belong?”
http://www.vu.edu.au/sites/default/files/cses/pdfs/lavoie-paper.pdf

Lavoie, Marc. 2014. Post-Keynesian Economics: New Foundations. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. pp. 38–47.

Lee, Frederic S. 2009. A History of Heterodox Economics: Challenging the Mainstream in the Twentieth Century. Routledge, London and New York.

Mongiovi, G. 2003. “Sraffian Economics,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 318–322.

Pasinetti, L. L. 2005. “The Cambridge School of Keynesian Economics,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 29.6: 837–848.

Pasinetti, Luigi L. 2007. Keynes and the Cambridge Keynesians: A ‘Revolution in Economics’ to be Accomplished. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Roncaglia, A. 1991. “The Sraffian Schools,” Review of Political Economy 3.2: 187–220.

Skidelsky, R. J. A. 1983. John Maynard Keynes: Hopes Betrayed 1883–1920 (vol. 1). Macmillan, London.

Skidelsky, R. J. A. 1992. John Maynard Keynes: The Economist as Saviour 1920–1937 (vol. 2). Macmillan, London.

Skidelsky, R. J. A. 2000. John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain 1937–1946 (vol. 3), Macmillan, London.

Thirlwall, A. P. 1987. Nicholas Kaldor. Wheatsheaf Books, Brighton, England.

Tily, Geoff. 2010. Keynes Betrayed: The General Theory, the Rate of Interest and ‘Keynesian’ Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Tymoigne, Eric and Frederic S. Lee. 2003–2004. “Post Keynesian Economics since 1936: A History of a Promise That Bounced?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 26.2: 273–287.

Walters, B. and D. Young. 1997. “On the Coherence of Post-Keynesian Economics,” Scottish Journal of Political Economy 44.3: 329–349.

(4) Methodology
In essence, there are three, partly overlapping, methodologies proposed for Post Keynesian economics:
(1) Critical realism;

(2) the Babylonian approach of Sheila Dow (1990; 1996), and

(3) Paul Davidson’s (1996) “generalising” methodology.
See the following:

Beed, Clive. 1991. “Philosophy of Science and Contemporary Economics: An Overview,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 13.4: 459–494.

Bhaskar, Roy. 2008. A Realist Theory of Science (2nd edn.), Verso, London.

Brown, A. “Critical Realism,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 121–126.

Brown, Andrew. 2000–2001. “A Comment on Dow’s ‘Post Keynesianism and Critical Realism: What Is the Connection?,’” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.2: 349–355.

Colander, David, Holt, Richard P.F. and J. Barkley Rosser Jr. 2007–2008. “Live and Dead Issues in the Methodology of Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 30.2: 303–312.

Davis, J. B. 1987. “Three Principles of Post Keynesian Methodology,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 9.4: 552–564.

Davidson, Paul. 1996. “Reality and Economic Theory,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 18.4: 479–508.

Dow, Sheila C. 1982. “Neoclassical Tautologies and the Cambridge Controversies: Reply,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 5.1: 132–134.

Dow, Sheila C. 1982–1983. “Substantive Mountains and Methodological Molehills: A Rejoinder,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 5.2: 304–330.

Dow, Sheila C. 1990. “Beyond Dualism,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 14.2: 143–157.

Dow, Sheila C. 1990. “Post Keynesianism as Political Economy: A Methodological Discussion,” Review of Political Economy 2.3: 345–358.

Dow, Sheila C. 1996. The Methodology of Macroeconomic Thought: A Conceptual Analysis of Schools of Thought in Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Dow, Sheila C. 1999. “Post Keynesianism and Critical Realism: What Is the Connection?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.1: 15–33.

Dow, Sheila C. 2001. “Post Keynesian Methodology,” in Richard P.F. Holt and Steven Pressman (eds.), A New Guide to Post-Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London and New York. 11–20.

Dow, Sheila C. 2003. “Understanding the Relationship between Mathematics and Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 25.4: 547–560.

Dow, Sheila C. 2004. “Structured Pluralism,” Journal of Economic Methodology 11.3: 275–290.

Dow, Sheila C. 2005. “Axioms and Babylonian Thought: A Reply,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27.3: 385–391.

Dow, Sheila. 2012. “Babylonian Mode of Thought,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 15–19.

Dow, Sheila. 2013. “Methodology and post-Keynesian Economics,” in G. C. Harcourt and Peter Kriesler (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economics, Volume 2. Critiques and Methodology. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.

Dunn, S. P. 2008. The ‘Uncertain’ Foundations of Post Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London.

Fullbrook, Edward. 2009. Ontology and Economics: Tony Lawson and his Critics. Routledge, New York.

Harcourt, G. C. and P. A. Riach (eds), 1997. A “Second Edition” of The General Theory (Vol. 1), Routledge, London.

Harcourt, G. C. and P. A. Riach (eds), 1997. A “Second Edition” of The General Theory (Vol. 2), Routledge, London.

Jespersen, Jesper. 2009. Macroeconomic Methodology: A Post-Keynesian Perspective. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, Glos. and Northampton, MA.

Jespersen, Jesper. 2012. “Macroeconomic Methodology”, in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 379–383.

Katzner, Donald W. 2003. “Why Mathematics in Economics?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 25.4: 561–574.

King, J. E. 2002. A History of Post Keynesian Economics since 1936. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA.

King, J. E. 2005. “Unwarping the Record: A Reply to Paul Davidson,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27.3: 377–384.

Lavoie, Marc. “History and Methods of Post-Keynesian Economics,” in Eckhard Hein and Engelbert Stockhammer (eds.), A Modern Guide to Keynesian Macroeconomics and Economic Policies. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 2011.

Lawson, Tony. 1994. “The Nature of Post Keynesianism and Its Links to Other Traditions: A Realist Perspective,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 16.4: 503–538.

Lawson, Tony. 1997. Economics and Reality. Routledge, London.

Lawson, Tony. 1999. “Connections and Distinctions: Post Keynesianism and Critical Realism,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.1: 3–14.

Lawson, Tony. 2003. Reorienting Economics. Routledge, London.

Lawson, Tony. 2006. “The Nature of Heterodox Economics,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 30: 483–505.

Lawson, Tony and H. Pesaran (eds.). 1989. Keynes’ Economics: Methodological Issues. Routledge, London.

Lewis, Paul and Jochen Runde. 1999. “A Critical Realist Perspective on Paul Davidson’s Methodological Writings on- and Rhetorical Strategy for- Post Keynesian Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.1: 35–56.

Loasby, B. J. 1984. “On Scientific Method,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 6.3: 394–410.

Martins, Nuno Ornelas. 2009. “Sen's Capability Approach and Post Keynesianism: Similarities, Distinctions, and the Cambridge Tradition,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 31.4: 691–706.

McKenna, Edward J. and Diane C. Zannoni. 1999. “Post Keynesian Economics and Critical Realism: A Reply to Parsons,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.1: 57–70.

Parsons, Stephen D. 1996. “Post Keynesian Realism and Keynes’ General Theory,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 18.3: 419–441.

Phelps, Michael G. 1980. “Laments, Ancient and Modern: Keynes on Mathematical and Econometric Methodology,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 2.4: 482–493.

Popper, Karl R. 1978. “Three Worlds,” The Tanner Lecture on Human Values, Delivered at the University of Michigan, April 7, 1978.
www.thee-online.com/Documents/Popper-3Worlds.pdf‎

Popper, Karl R. 1979. Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach (rev. edn.). Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Rotheim, Roy J. 1999. “Post Keynesian Economics and Realist Philosophy,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.1: 71–103.

Ruccio, David F. 1991. “Postmodernism and Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 13.4: 495–510.

Sardoni, Claudio. 1989–1990. “Chapter 18 of the General Theory: Its Methodological Importance,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 12.2: 293–307.

Walters, Bernard and David Young. 1997. “On the Coherence of Post-Keynesian Economics,” Scottish Journal of Political Economy 44.3: 329–349.

Walters, Bernard and David Young. 1999. “Is Critical Realism the Appropriate Basis for Post Keynesianism?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.1: 105–123.

Wiles, Peter. 1979–1980. “Ideology, Methodology, and Neoclassical Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 2.2: 155–180.

(5) Uncertainty
Barkley Rosser, J. 2001. “Uncertainty and Expectations,” in R. P. F. Holt and S. Pressman (eds), 2001. A New Guide to Post Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London and New York. 52–64.

Barkley Rosser, J. 2001. “Alternative Keynesian and Post Keynesian Perspectives on Uncertainty and Expectations,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.4: 545–566.

Boylan, Tom and Paschal O’Gorman. “Post-Keynesian Economics, Rationality, and Conventions,” in G. C. Harcourt and Peter Kriesler (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economics. Volume 2: Critiques and Methodology. Oxford University Press, New York. 62–79.

Brady, Michael Emmett. “The Economic Consequences of G. L. S. Shackle’s Ignorance of Keynes’s Theory of Probability, Uncertainty, and Decision Making,” SSRN paper
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2309259

Crocco, M. 2002. “The Concept of Degrees of Uncertainty in Keynes, Shackle, and Davidson,” Nova Economia 12.2: 11–28.

Davidson, P. 1982–1983. “Rational Expectations: A Fallacious Foundation for Studying Crucial Decision Making Processes,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 5.2: 182–198.

Davidson, P. 1988. “A Technical Definition of Uncertainty and the Long Run Non-Neutrality of Money,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 12: 329–337.

Davidson, P. 1991. “Is Probability Theory Relevant for Uncertainty? A Post Keynesian Perspective,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 5.1: 129–143.

Davidson, P. 1993. “The Elephant and the Butterfly: Or Hysteresis and Post Keynesian Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 15.3: 309–322.

Davidson, P. 1996. “Reality and Economic Theory,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 18.4: 479–508.

Davidson, P. 2004. “Uncertainty and Monetary Policy,” in P. Mooslechner, H. Schuberth, M. Schürz (eds), Economic Policy under Uncertainty: The Role of Truth and Accountability in Policy Advice. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA.

Davidson, P. 2010. “Black Swans and Knight’s Epistemological Uncertainty: Are These Concepts also Underlying Behavioral and Post-Walrasian Theory?” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 32.4: 567–570.

Dempster, G. M. 1999. “Austrians and Post Keynesians: The Questions of Ignorance and Uncertainty,” Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 2.4: 73–81.

Dequech, D. 1999. “Expectations and Confidence under Uncertainty,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 21.3: 415–430.

Dequech, David. 2000. “Fundamental Uncertainty and Ambiguity,” Eastern Economic Journal 26.1: 41–60.

Dequech, David. 2008. “Varieties of Uncertainty: A Survey of the Economic Literature,”
http://ideas.repec.org/p/anp/en2008/200807211223070.html

Dequech, David. 2011. “Uncertainty: A Typology and Refinements of Existing Concepts,” Journal of Economic Issues 45.3: 621–640.

Dixon, R. 1986. “Uncertainty, Unobstructedness, and Power,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 8.4: 585–590.

Dunn, S. P. 2001. “Bounded Rationality is not Fundamental Uncertainty: A Post Keynesian Perspective,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.4: 567–587.

Dunn, S. P. 2008. The ‘Uncertain’ Foundations of Post Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London.

Dunn, S. P. 2012. “Non-Ergodicity,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA. 434–439.

Feduzi, Alberto, Runde, Jochen and Carlo Zappia. 2014. “De Finetti on Uncertainty,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 38.1: 1–21.

Ferderer, J. P. 1993. “Does Uncertainty Affect Investment Spending?” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 16.1: 19–35.

Ferrari-Filho, F. and O. A. Camargo Conceição. 2005. “The Concept of Uncertainty in Post Keynesian Theory and in Institutional Economics,” Journal of Economic Issues 39.3: 579–594.

Fontana, G. and B. Gerrard, 2004. “A Post Keynesian Theory of Decision Making Under Uncertainty,” Journal of Economic Psychology 25: 619–637.

Gerrard, B. 1994. “Animal Spirits,” in P. Arestis and M. Sawyer (eds), The Elgar Companion to Radical Political Economy. Elgar, Aldershot. 15–19.

Glickman, M. 1994. “The Concept of Information, Intractable Uncertainty, and the Current State of the ‘Efficient Markets’ Theory: A Post Keynesian View,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 16.3: 325–349.

Glickman, M. 2003. “Uncertainty,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics. E. Elgar Pub., Cheltenham, UK and Northhampton, MA. 366–370.

Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 2011. “The Eclipse of the Uncertainty Concept in Mainstream Economics,” Journal of Economic Issues 45.1: 159–175.

Hoogduin, L. 1987. “On the Difference between the Keynesian, Knightian and the ‘Classical’ Analysis of Uncertainty and the Development of a More General Monetary Theory,” De Economist 135.1: 52–65.

Keynes, J. M. 1937. “The General Theory of Employment,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 51: 209–223.

King, J. E. 2002. A History of Post Keynesian Economics since 1936. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA. Chapter 9, pp. 181–202.

Koppl, R. 1991. “Retrospectives: Animal Spirits,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 5.3: 203–210.

Kregel, J. A. 1976. “Economic Methodology in the Face of Uncertainty: The Modelling Methods of Keynes and the Post-Keynesians,” Economic Journal 86.342: 209–225.

Langlois, R. 1994. “Risk and Uncertainty,” in Peter J. Boettke (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics. E. Elgar, Aldershot. 118–122.

Lawson, T. 1985. “Uncertainty and Economic Analysis,” Economic Journal 95: 909–927.

Lawson, T. 1988. “Probability and Uncertainty in Economic Analysis,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 11.1: 38–65.

McCann, Charles R. 1994. Probability Foundations of Economic Theory. Routledge, London.

Minsky, H. P. and C. J. Whalen, 1996–1997. “Economic Insecurity and the Institutional Prerequisites for Successful Capitalism,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 19.2: 155–170.

O’Donnell, Rod. 2013. “Two Post-Keynesian Approaches to Uncertainty and Irreducible Uncertainty,” in G. C. Harcourt and Peter Kriesler (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Post-Keynesian Economics. Volume 2: Critiques and Methodology. Oxford University Press, New York. 124–142.

Ravetz, J. 1994–1995. “Economics as an Elite Folk Science: The Suppression of Uncertainty,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 17.2: 165–184.

Runde, Jochen. 1994. “Keynesian Uncertainty and Liquidity Preference,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 18.2: 129–144.

Runde, Jochen. 1998. “Clarifying Frank Knight’s Discussion of the Meaning of Risk and Uncertainty,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 22.5: 539–546.

Runde, Jochen. 2000. “Shackle on Probability,” in Stephen F. Frowen and Peter Earl (eds.), Economics as an Art of Thought: Essays in Memory of G. L. S. Shackle. Routledge, New York.

Rutherford, M. 1984. “Rational Expectations and Keynesian Uncertainty: A Critique,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 6.3: 377–387.

Schinckus, C. 2009. “Economic Uncertainty and Econophysics,” Physica A 388.20: 4415–4423.

Setterfield, M. 1998. “Path Dependency and Animal Spirits: A Reply,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 21.1: 167–170.

Shackle, George L. S. 1949. “Probability and Uncertainty,” Metroeconomica 1.3: 161–173.

Shackle, George L. S. 1955. Uncertainty in Economics and Other Reflections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Skidelsky, R. 2009. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, New York. Chapter 4.

Stohs, Mark. 1980. “‘Uncertainty’ in Keynes’ General Theory,” History of Political Economy 12.3: 372–382.

Terzi, A. 2010. “Keynes’s Uncertainty is not about White or Black Swans,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 32.4: 559–565.

Voss, Stefan. 2012. “When Keynes and Minsky meet Mandelbrot …,” in Jesper Jespersen and Mogens Ove Madsen (eds.), Keynes’s General Theory for Today: Contemporary Perspectives. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 113–130.

(6) Endogenous Money
Arestis, P. and P. Howells. 1996. “Theoretical Reflections on Endogenous Money: The Problem with ‘Convenience Lending,’” Cambridge Journal of Economics 20: 539–552.

Arestis, P. and M. Sawyer (eds). 2006. A Handbook of Alternative Monetary Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, Mass.

Arestis, P. and I. Biefang-Frisancho Mariscal. 1995. “The Endogenous Money Stock: Empirical Observations from the United Kingdom,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 17.4: 545–559.

Bell, S. 2001. “The Role of the State and the Hierarchy of Money,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 25.2: 149–163.

Chick, Victoria and Sheila Dow. 2002. “Monetary Policy with Endogenous Money and Liquidity Preference: A Nondualistic Treatment,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 24.4: 587–607.

Cottrell, Allin. 1994. “Endogenous Money and the Multiplier,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 17.1: 111–120.

Cripps, Francis. 1983. “What is Wrong with Monetarism?,” in Karel Jansen (ed.). Monetarism, Economic Crisis and the Third World. Frank Cass, London and Totowa, N.J. 55–68.

Dalziel, Paul. 1996. “The Keynesian Multiplier, Liquidity Preference, and Endogenous Money,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 18.3: 311–331.

Dalziel, Paul. 1999–2000. “A Post Keynesian Theory of Asset Price Inflation with Endogenous Money,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 22.2: 227–245.

Fand, David I. 1988. “On the Endogenous Money Supply,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 10.3: 386–389.

Fontana, G. 2000. “Post Keynesians and Circuitists on Money and Uncertainty: An Attempt at Generality,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.1: 27–48.

Fontana, Giuseppe. 2009. Money, Uncertainty and Time. Routledge, London and New York.

Fontana, G. 2002. “The Making of Monetary Policy in Endogenous Money Theory: An Introduction,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 24.4: 503–509.

Fontana, G. 2003. “Post Keynesian Approaches to Endogenous Money: A Time Framework Explanation,” Review of Political Economy 15.3: 291–314.

Fontana, G. 2004. “Rethinking Endogenous Money: A Constructive Interpretation of the Debate Between Horizontalists and Structuralists,” Metroeconomica 55.4: 367–385.

Fontana, G. 2004. “Hicks on Monetary Theory and History: Money as Endogenous Money,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 28.1: 73–88.

Fontana, Giuseppe and Alfonso Palacio-Vera. 2003. “Is There an Active Role for Monetary Policy in the Endogenous Money Approach?,” Journal of Economic Issues 37.2: 511–517.

Fontana, Giuseppe and Venturino, Ezio. 2003. “Endogenous Money: An Analytical Approach,” Scottish Journal of Political Economy 50: 398–416.

Graziani, Augusto. 2003. The Monetary Theory of Production. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Howells, Peter G. A. 1995. “The Demand for Endogenous Money,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 18.1: 89–106.

Howells, P. 2006. “The Endogeneity of Money: Empirical Evidence,” in P. Arestis and M. Sawyer (eds), A Handbook of Alternative Monetary Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, Mass. 52–68.

Howells, Peter G. A. 1997. “The Demand for Endogenous Money: A Rejoinder,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 19.3: 429–435.

Jarsulic, Marc. 1989. “Endogenous Credit and Endogenous Business Cycles,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 12.1: 35–48.

Kaldor, N. 1939. “Speculation and Economic Activity,” Review of Economic Studies 7: 1–27.

Kaldor, N. 1982. The Scourge of Monetarism. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.

Lavoie, Marc. 1984. “The Endogenous Flow of Credit and the Post Keynesian Theory of Money,” Journal of Economic Issues 18.3: 771–797.

Lavoie, Marc. 1985. “The Post Keynesian Theory of Endogenous Money: A Reply,” Journal of Economic Issues 19.3: 843–848.

Lavoie, Marc. 1985. “Credit And Money: Overdraft Economies, And Post-Keynesian Economics,” in M. Jarsulic (ed.), Money and Macro Policy. Kluwer-Nijhoff, Boston; Kluwer Academic Pub., Hingham, MA. 63-84.

Lavoie, Marc. 1992. Foundations of Post-Keynesian Economic Analysis. Elgar, Aldershot.

Lavoie, Marc. 1996. “Horizontalism, Structuralism, Liquidity Preference and the Principle of Increasing Risk,” Scottish Journal of Political Economy 43.3: 275–300.

Meulendyke, Ann-Marie. 1988. “Can the Federal Reserve Influence Whether the Money Supply Is Endogenous? A Comment on Moore,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 10.3: 390–397.

Moore, Basil J. 1979. “The Endogenous Money Stock,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 2.1: 49–70.

Moore, Basil J. 1988. Horizontalists and Verticalists: The Macroeconomics of Credit Money. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Moore, Basil J. 1997. “Reconciliation of the Supply and Demand for Endogenous Money,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 19.3: 423–428.

Musella, M. 2001. “Endogenous Money and Credit,” in P. Anthony O’Hara (ed.), Encyclopedia of Political Economy. Volume 1. A–K. Routledge, London and New York. 259–261.

Paganelli, Maria Pia. 2006. “Hume and Endogenous Money,” Eastern Economic Journal 32.3: 533–547.

Palacio-Vera, Alfonso. 2001. “The Endogenous Money Hypothesis: Some Evidence from Spain (1987–1998),” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.3: 509–526.

Palley, T. I., 2002, “Endogenous Money: What It is and Why It Matters,” Metroeconomica 53: 152–180.

Palley, Thomas I. 1987–1988. “Bank Lending, Discount Window Borrowing, and the Endogenous Money Supply: A Theoretical Framework,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 10.2: 282–303.

Palley, Thomas I. 1991. “The Endogenous Money Supply: Consensus and Disagreement,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 13.3: 397–403.

Palley, Thomas I. 1996. Post Keynesian Economics: Debt, Distribution, and the Macro Economy. St. Martin’s Press, New York.

Palley, Thomas I. 1997. “Endogenous Money and the Business Cycle.” Journal of Economics 65.2: 133–149.

Piegay, P. 2003. “Post Keynesian Controversies on Endogenous Money: An Alternative Interpretation,” in L.-P. Rochon and S. Rossi (eds), Modern Theories of Money: The Nature and Role of Money in Capitalist Economies. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, Mass.

Pollin, Robert. 1991. “Two Theories of Money Supply Endogeneity: Some Empirical Evidence,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 13.3: 366–396.

Rochon, Louis-Philippe. 1999. “The Creation and Circulation of Endogenous Money: A Circuit Dynamique Approach,” Journal of Economic Issues 33.1: 1–21.

Rochon, Louis-Philippe. 1999. Credit, Money, and Production: An Alternative Post-Keynesian Approach. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA.

Rochon, Louis-Philippe. 2000. “The Creation and Circulation of Endogenous Money: A Reply to Pressman,” Journal of Economic Issues 34.4: 973–979.

Rochon, Louis-Philippe and Sergio Rossi (eds.). 2006. Endogenous Money: The Evolutionary Versus Revolutionary Views. Centro di studi bancari, RME Lab, Vezia.

Rousseas, Stephen. 1998. Post Keynesian Monetary Economics (3rd end.), Macmillan, London.

Setterfield, M. 2000. “Expectations, Endogenous Money, and the Business Cycle: An Exercise in Open Systems Modeling,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.1: 77–105.

Setterfield, M. (ed.). 2006. Complexity, Endogenous Money and Macroeconomic Theory: Essays in Honour of Basil J. Moore. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA.

Shanmugam, B., Nair, M. and Ong, W. L. 2003. “The Endogenous Money Hypothesis: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia (1985–2000),” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 25.4: 599–611.

Wray, L. R. 1990. Money and Credit in Capitalist Economies: The Endogenous Money Approach. E. Elgar, Aldershot, Hants, England and Brookfield, Vt., USA.

Wray, L. R. 1998. Understanding Modern Money: The Key to Full Employment and Price Stability. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Wray, L. Randall. 2003–2004. “Loanable Funds, Liquidity Preference, and Endogenous Money: Do Credit Cards Make a Difference?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 26.2: 309–323.

(7) Fiscal Policy
Arestis, Philip and Malcolm Sawyer. 2003. “Reinventing Fiscal Policy,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 26.1: 3–25.

Câmara Neto, Alcino F. and Matias Vernengo. 2004–2005. “Fiscal Policy and the Washington Consensus: A Post Keynesian Perspective,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27.2: 333–343.

Chand, Sheetal K. 1984. “A Keynesian Fiscal Policy and the New Classical Macroeconomics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 6.4: 509–522.

Cunningham, Steven R. and Jon Vilasuso. 1994–1995. “Is Keynesian Demand Management Policy Still Viable?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 17.2: 187–210.

Eichner, Alfred S. 1988. “The Reagan Record: A Post Keynesian View,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 10.4: 541–556.

Fazzari, Steven M. 1994–1995. “Why Doubt the Effectiveness of Keynesian Fiscal Policy?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 17.2: 231–248.

Hjelm, Göran. 2006–2007. “‘Expansionary Fiscal Contractions’: A Standard Keynesian Explanation,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 29.2: 327–358.

Mitchell, William and Martin Watts. 2012. “Full Employment,” in John E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 229–236.

Musgrave, Richard A. 1987–1988. “U.S. Fiscal Policy, Keynes, and Keynesian Economics,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 10.2: 171–182.

Nevile, J. W. 2012. “Fiscal Policy,” in John E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 224–229.

Pelagidis, Theodore and Evangelia Desli. 2004. “Deficits, Growth, and the Current Slowdown: What Role for Fiscal Policy?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 26. 3: 461–469.

Peterson, Wallace C. and Paul S. Estenson. 1985. “The Recovery: Supply-Side or Keynesian?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 7.4: 447–462.

Pressman, S. 2001. “The Role of the State and the State Budget,” in Richard P. F. Holt and Steven Pressman (eds.), A New Guide to Post-Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London and New York. 102–113.

Ward, Terry. 1982. “Mrs. Thatcher’s Economic Strategy in Practice,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 4.4: 516–530.

(8) Inflation
Eisner, Robert. 1994. “Challenge to the Natural Rate Doctrine,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 17.1: 159–161.

Lavoie, Marc. 2014. “Inflation Theory,” in Marc Lavoie, Post-Keynesian Economics: New Foundations. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 541–573.

Meltzer, Allan H. 1988. “Economic Policies and Actions in the Reagan Administration,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 10.4: 528–540.

Rochon, Louis-Philippe. 2007. “The State of Post Keynesian Interest Rate Policy: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 30.1: 3–11.

Rochon, Louis-Philippe and Mark Setterfield. 2007. “Interest Rates, Income Distribution, and Monetary Policy Dominance: Post Keynesians and the ‘Fair Rate’ of Interest,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 30.1: 13–42.

Rowthorn, R. 1977. “‘Conflict, Inflation and Money,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 1.3: 215–239.

Sawyer, Malcolm. 2006. “Inflation Targeting and Central Bank Independence: We Are All Keynesians Now! or Are We?,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 28.4: 639–652.

Sicsú, João. 2001. “Credible Monetary Policy: A Post Keynesian Approach,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.4: 669–687.

Smithin, John. 2012. “Inflation,” in John E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 288–293.

Setterfield, M. 2007. “The Rise, Decline and Rise of Incomes Policies in the US during the Post-War Era: An Institutional-Analytical Explanation of Inflation and the Functional Distribution of Income,” Journal of Institutional Economics 3.2: 127–146.

Wray, L. Randall. 1997. “Deficits, Inflation, and Monetary Policy,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 19.4: 543–571.

Wray, L. Randall. 2007. “A Post Keynesian View of Central Bank Independence, Policy Targets, and the Rules versus Discretion Debate,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 30.1: 119–141.

Wray, L. Randall. 2001. “Money and Inflation,” in Richard P. F. Holt and Steven Pressman (eds.), A New Guide to Post-Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London and New York. 79–91.

(9) Price Theory
Davidson, P. 1992. “Would Keynes be a New Keynesian?,” Eastern Economic Journal 18.4: 449–463.

Downward, Paul. 1999. Pricing Theory in Post-Keynesian Economics: A Realist Approach. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA.

Downward, Paul and Frederic Lee. 2001. “Post Keynesian Pricing Theory ‘Reconfirmed’? A Critical Review of Asking about Prices,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 23.3: 465–483.

Hall, R. L. and C. J. Hitch. 1939. “Price Theory and Business Behaviour,” Oxford Economic Papers 2: 12–45.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1985. Economics Without Equilibrium. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Kalecki, M. 1954. Theory of Economic Dynamics. Allen and Unwin, London.

Kalecki, M. 1971. Selected Essays on the Dynamics of the Capitalist Economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lavoie, Marc. 2001. “Pricing,” in Richard P. F. Holt and Steven Pressman (eds.), A New Guide to Post-Keynesian Economics. Routledge, London and New York. 21–31.

Lee, Frederic S. 1998. Post Keynesian Price Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Melmiès, J. 2010. “New-Keynesians Versus Post-Keynesians on the Theory of Prices,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 32.3: 445-466.

Melmiès, J. 2012. “Price Rigidity,” in J. E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 452–456.

Means, G. C. 1992 [1933]. “The Corporate Revolution,” in Frederic S. Lee and Warren J. Samuels (eds.), The Heterodox Economics of Gardiner C. Means: A Collection. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Means, G. C. 1935. Industrial Prices and their Relative Inflexibility. US Senate Document no. 13, 74th Congress, 1st Session, Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

Means, G. C. 1936. “Notes on Inflexible Prices,” American Economic Review 26 (Supplement): 23–35.

Means, G. C. 1939–1940. “Big Business, Administered Prices, and the Problem of Full Employment,” Journal of Marketing 4: 370–381.

Means, G. C. 1962. Pricing Power and the Public Interest. Harper and Brothers. New York.

(10) Trade Theory
Baiman, R. 2010. “The Infeasibility of Free Trade in Classical Theory: Ricardo’s Comparative Advantage Parable has No Solution,” Review of Political Economy 22.3: 419–437.

Bairoch, Paul. 1993. Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. Harvester Wheatsheaf, New York and London.

Brewer, A. 1985. “Trade with Fixed Real Wages and Mobile Capital,” Journal of International Economics 18: 177–186.

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2002. Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. Anthem Press, London.

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2008. Bad Samaritans: Rich Nations, Poor Policies, and the Threat to the Developing World. Random House Business, London.

Cripps, Francis and Wynne Godley. 1978. “Control of Imports as a Means to Full Employment and the Expansion of World Trade: The UK’s Case,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 2.3: 327–334.

Davidson, Paul. 2011. Post Keynesian Macroeconomic Theory: Foundation for Successful Economic Policies for the Twenty-First Century (2nd edn). Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham. pp. 249–256.

Davidson, Paul. 2015. “Is International Free Trade always Beneficial?,” in Paul Davidson, Post Keynesian Theory and Policy: A Realistic Analysis of the Market Oriented Capitalist Economy. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK. 124–135.

Duffield, J. 2010. ‘Ricardian ‘Comparative Advantage’ is Illusory,” Real-World Economics Review 54 (27 September). 62–78.
http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue54/Duffield54.pdf

Fletcher, Ian. 2011. Free Trade Doesn’t Work: What Should Replace It and Why (2nd edn.). Coalition for a Prosperous America, Sheffield, MA.

Hudson, Michael. 2010. America’s Protectionist Takeoff, 1815–1914: The Neglected American School of Political Economy (new edn.). Islet, Dresden.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1978. “The Nemesis of Free Trade,” in N. Kaldor, Further Essays on Applied Economics. Duckworth, London. 234–241.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1980. “The Foundations of Free Trade Theory and their Implications for the Current World Recession,” in E. Malinvaud and J. P. Fitoussi (eds), Unemployment in Western Countries. MacMillan Press, London. 85–100.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1981. “The Role of Increasing Returns, Technical Progress and Cumulative Causation in the Theory of International Trade and Economic Growth,” Économie Appliquée 34.4: 593–617.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1985. Economics Without Equilibrium. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y. pp. 68–75.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1996. Causes of Growth and Stagnation in the World Economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

King, John Edward. 2013. David Ricardo. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK. pp. 81–88, 104–106.

Lavoie, Marc. 2014. Post-Keynesian Economics: New Foundations. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. pp. 507–512.

Norman, Neville R. 1996. “A General Post Keynesian Theory of Protection,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 18.4: 509–531.

Palley, Thomas I. “The Free Trade Debate: A Left Keynesian Gaze.”
http://www.thomaspalley.com/docs/articles/international_markets/freetrade_debate.pdf

Palley, Thomas I. 2008. “Institutionalism and New Trade Theory: Rethinking Comparative Advantage and Trade Policy,” Journal of Economic Issues 42.1: 195–208.

Parrinello, S. 2006. “National Competitiveness and Absolute Advantage in a Global Economy,” Dipartimento di Economia pubblica, Working paper 95, University of Rome “La Sapienza.”

Prasch, Robert E. 1995. “Reassessing Comparative Advantage: The Impact of Capital Flows on the Argument for Laissez-Faire,” Journal of Economic Issues 29.2: 427–433.

Prasch, Robert E. 1996. “Reassessing the Theory of Comparative Advantage,” Review of Political Economy 8.1: 37–56.

Pullen, John. 2006. “Did Ricardo really have a Law of Comparative Advantage? A Comparison of Ricardo’s Version and the Modern Version,” History of Economics Review 44: 59–75.

Robinson, Joan. 1973. “The Need for a Reconsideration of the Theory of International Trade,” in M. B. Connolly and A. K. Swoboda (eds.), International Trade and Money: The Geneva Essays. Allen and Unwin, London. 15–25.

Robinson, Joan. 1974. Reflections on the Theory of International Trade. The University Press, Manchester.

Robinson, Joan. 1977. “What Are the Questions?,” Journal of Economic Literature 15.4: 1318–1339, at 1333–1336.

Robinson, Joan. 1979. Aspects of Development and Underdevelopment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Ruffin, Roy J. 2002. “David Ricardo’s Discovery of Comparative Advantage,” History of Political Economy 34.4: 727–748.

Shaikh, A. 2007. “Globalization and the Myth of Free Trade,” in A. Shaikh (ed.), Globalization and the Myths of Free Trade: History, Theory, and Empirical Evidence. Routledge, London 50–68.

Steedman, I. 1999. “Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities and the Open Economy,” Metroeconomica 50.3: 260–276.

(11) Cambridge Capital Controversies
Arestis, Philip, Palma, Gabriel and Malcolm Sawyer (eds.). 1997. Capital Controversy, Post-Keynesian Economics and the History of Economic Thought. Routledge, London.

Cohen, Avi J. 1984. “The Methodological Resolution of the Cambridge Controversies,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 6.4: 614–629.

Cohen, Avi J. 1985. “Issues in the Cambridge Controversies,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 7.4: 612–615.

Cohen, Avi J. and G. C. Harcourt. 2003. “Retrospectives: Whatever happened to Cambridge
Capital Controversies?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17.1: 199–214.

Dow, Sheila C. 1980. “Methodological Morality in the Cambridge Controversies,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 2.3: 368–380.

Fine, Ben. 2012. “Capital Theory,” in John E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (2nd edn.). Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 68–74.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 1969. “Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital,” Journal of Economic Literature 7.2: 369–405.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 1972. Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

King, J. 2002. “Those Cambridge Controversies,” in J. E. King, A History of Post Keynesian Economics since 1936. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA. 79–102.

Harcourt, Geoffrey Colin. 1976. “The Cambridge Controversies: Old Ways and New Horizons-Or Dead End?,” Oxford Economic Papers n.s. 28.1: 25–65.

Robinson, Joan V. 1953–1954. “The Production Function and the Theory of Capital,” Review of Economic Studies 21.2: 81–106.

Salanti, Andrea. 1982. “Neoclassical Tautologies and the Cambridge Controversies,” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 5.1: 128–131.

(12) On the Work of George L. S. Shackle
Carter, C. 1993. “George Shackle and Uncertainty: A Revolution Still Awaited,” Review of Political Economy 5.2: 127–137.

Ford, J. L. 1993. “G. L. S. Shackle: A Brief Bio-Bibliographical Portrait,” Journal of Economic Studies 12.1/2: 3–12.

Perlman, M. 2005. “Memorialising George L. S. Shackle: A Centennial Tribute,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 29.2: 171–178.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1952. Expectation in Economics (2nd edn), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1955. Uncertainty in Economics: And Other Reflections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1958. Time in Economics (Professor Dr. F. de Vries lectures, 1957), North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1967. The Years of High Theory: Invention and Tradition in Economic Thought 1926–1939. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1969 Decision, Order and Time in Human Affairs (2nd edn), Cambridge University Press, London.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1972. Epistemics and Economics: A Critique of Economic Doctrines. Cambridge University Press, London.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1974. Keynesian Kaleidics: The Evolution of a General Political Economy. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1976. Time and Choice (Keynes lecture in Economics, 1976), British Academy, London.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1988. Business, Time and Thought: Selected Papers of G.L.S. Shackle (ed. S. F. Frowen), Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Shackle, G. L. S. 1990. Time, Expectations and Uncertainty in Economics: Selected Essays of G. L. S. Shackle (ed. J. L. Ford), Elgar, Aldershot.

Stephen, F. H. 1986. “Decision Making under Uncertainty: In Defence of Shackle,” Journal of Economic Studies 13.5: 45–57.

(13) On the Work of Hyman Minsky
Hyman P. Minsky Archive.

Minsky, H. P. 1982. Can “It” Happen Again?: Essays on Instability and Finance. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Minsky, H. P. 1986. Stabilizing an Unstable Economy. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Minsky, H. P. 1992. The Financial Instability Hypothesis. Working papers (Jerome Levy Economics Institute) ; no. 74.

Minsky, H. P. 2008 [1975]. John Maynard Keynes. McGraw-Hill, New York and London.

Papadimitriou, Dimitri B. and L. Randall Wray (eds.). 2010. The Elgar Companion to Hyman Minsky. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Wray, L. Randall. 2016. Why Minsky Matters: An Introduction to the Work of a Maverick Economist. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

(14) Alfred Mitchell Innes and the Credit Theory of Money
Mitchell Innes, A. 1913. “What is Money?,” Banking Law Journal 30.5: 377–408. (reprinted in L. R. Wray (ed.). 2004. Credit and State Theories of Money: The Contributions of A. Mitchell Innes. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 14–49).

Mitchell Innes, A. 1914. “The Credit Theory of Money,” Banking Law Journal 31.2: 151–168 (reprinted in L. R. Wray (ed.). 2004. Credit and State Theories of Money: The Contributions of A. Mitchell Innes. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. 50–78).

Wray, L. R. (ed.), Credit and State Theories of Money: The Contributions of A. Mitchell Innes. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Further Reading
“A Bibliography on the History of Post Keynesian Economics (updated),” September 6, 2014.

“Post Keynesian Textbooks,” July 5, 2011.

“Bibliography on Post Keynesian Economics,” July 6, 2011.

“Endogenous Money: A Bibliography,” April 5, 2012.

“Bibliography on Post Keynesian Methodology,” September 16, 2013.

“Bibliography on Keynes’s Theory of Probability (Updated),” July 6, 2014.

“Bibliography on Uncertainty in Post Keynesian Economics (Updated),” May 21, 2014.

“Post Keynesian Economists: A List,” March 1, 2012.

“Post Keynesian Economics: A Revised Diagram,” April 15, 2014.

“A Third Revised Family Tree of Heterodox Economics,” April 14, 2014.

“A Third Revised Diagram of Economic Schools,” August 12, 2016.

“Bibliography on Debt Deflation,” October 16, 2012.

“Bibliography on the Origins of Money,” January 19, 2012.

Friday, September 30, 2016

An Alt Left should be Pro-Western Civilisation

As stated in this Alt Left video here:



This principle, then, is important:
Alternative Left
Politics, so far confined to the internet and social media, centred around advocacy of a program of protecting Western civilization from decline due to an erosion of humanist values caused by regressive leftism.
The “regressive left” is a perversion of everything an intelligent, rational and moral left should stand for.

The “regressive left” is an outgrow of all the rotten ideas of Frankfurt School Cultural Marxism (though the influence of this is a bit exaggerated), French Poststructuralism, Postmodernism, truth relativism, cultural relativism, moral relativism, divisive and extreme identity politics, Third Wave Feminism, and endless cults of victimology.

Fundamentally, there is an irrational and pathological hatred of Western civilisation on the regressive left, which manifests itself in the following:
(1) rejection of the very idea of objective empirical truth, and often of the idea of a rationally objective morality;

(2) hatred of the best principles of the Enlightenment;

(3) hatred of the best principles of Classical liberalism (such as free speech and free expression);

(4) in the Postmodernist tradition, a profoundly irrational hatred of modern science;

(5) the objectively false belief in extreme social constructivism, and the unhinged unwillingness to understand the biological influence on human nature and even behaviour;

(6) an extreme and vicious hatred of straight white men (derived to a great extent from Third Wave Feminism) and, quite frankly, a kind of bizarre anti-white racism and devaluation of Western civilisation, which is incapable of any balanced or fair analysis of the history of Western civilisation;

(7) the belief in open borders (partly because Western civilisation is seen as a horrible unmitigated evil and all white people seen as racist and evil);

(8) a cultural relativism that apologises for, and even excuses, the illiberal and regressive beliefs of non-Western people or cultures from the Third World (e.g., Islamism), and encourages blatant double standards in the treatment of people with different, minority cultures;

(9) following from (8), a hostility to the secular principles on which our civilisation is built, such as freedom of speech, freedom of expression, and even universal rule of secular legal systems.

(10) a regressive left multiculturalism that even seeks to smash up the social cohesion of Western nations, by demanding a de facto world of ethnic and religious segregation, parallel legal systems and increasing tensions between communities, and the very destruction of the national identities and even common languages that are absolutely necessary for any successful modern society to function properly.
So what does it mean to be pro-Western Civilisation?

Simple: it means to be opposed to all or most of these insane regressive left ideas.

It means the following:
(1) commitment to the concept of objective empirical truth, and hard thinking about how to have a rationally-grounded objective morality;

(2) defence of the best principles of the Enlightenment, such as a secular state and universal secular legal systems;

(3) defence of the best principles of Classical liberalism (such as free speech and free expression);

(4) defence of modern science and its empiricist method as the only rational way to obtain true knowledge, even if individual scientists can be fallible and some scientific disciplines can sometimes be corrupted by bad ideas;

(5) rejection of extreme social constructivism, and accepting the biological influence on human nature (such as, for example, the plain fact that men, generally speaking, are physically stronger than women);

(6) rejection of the bizarre regressive left anti-white racism and devaluation of Western civilisation. Instead, there should be honest and plain acknowledgement of crimes or immoral aspects of Western civilisation, but balanced with understanding of its many real positive aspects;

(7) rejection of cultural relativism and rejection of any excuses for illiberal and regressive beliefs of non-Western people or cultures from the Third World like Islamism. No double standards in the treatment of people with different, minority cultures;

(8) defence of the secular principles on which our modern Western civilisation is built, such as freedom of speech, freedom of expression, and the universal rule of secular national legal systems.

(9) rejection of regressive left multiculturalism, and the recognition of the benefits of healthy civic nationalism, assimilation of immigrants to our values, and a society with a strong national identity, and a realistic and pragmatic understanding of the dangers of the ideological cult of “diversity” and mass immigration that can destroy social cohesion.
In short, these should be a core principles of the social and cultural outlook of the Alt Left.

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